Nosce te ipsum


What does it mean?

Know Thyself

The Suda, a 10th Century encyclopaedia, says that “the proverb is applied to those whose boasts exceed what they are”. The aphorism, sometimes written as temet nosce, is also used as a counsel against heeding the opinions of the masses.


Nosce te ipsum or temet nosce are Latin terms which literally translate in English as ‘know you self’ and ‘yourself know’ respectively. The Suda places the maxim in the 10th Century and it recognises Thales of Miletus and Chilon of Sparta as its first sources. However, some scholars argue that it was probably an already popular proverb that was then attributed to various members of the Seven Sages of Greece, such as the two gentlemen above.

Improper use

If translated on some search engines and online translators, the word ipsum is deciphered as meaning ‘football’. To anyone with a half a brain, this is evidently incorrect. I can’t imagine any self-respecting sage wanting to put their name down in history to the phrase: “Know your football”.

Proper Use

Even in Ancient Egypt, it has been used in the Inner Temple of the Temple of Luxor where, among other proverbs, it is inscribed:
Man, know thyself … and thou shalt know the gods.

Et cetera, et cetera…

What does it mean?730032

‘Et cetera’ means ‘and so on.’ It is used to end a list that would have, in full, included many things similar to what was already mentioned.


‘Et cetera’ is a Latin term which translates literally in English to ‘and the rest.’ It is believed to have originated in English usage in the early 15th century. It is worth noting that, although it is now abbreviated to ‘etc,’ before the twentieth century it was usually written as ‘&c.’

Improper Use

It is incorrect, but common, to use ‘et cetera’ (usually in the form of ‘etc’) simply to abruptly end a list that may otherwise be very long, or to imply that more examples could be given but the writer doesn’t actually know them! This usage of ‘et cetera’ is actually incorrect. When using Latin in modern English, it’s meaning must always be known and considered so we can be sure we are using it correctly. When it is spoken aloud it is commonly mispronounced ‘ek-setera.’

Proper Use

‘Et cetera’ should be abbreviated as ‘etc’ and only used to end a list of items or people who are very similar to the ones specified. Examples of usage in a sentence include:

‘Bob’s Restaurant sells fast food meals, hot dogs, burgers, fries etc.’
‘For dessert there are all the expected flavours of ice cream, vanilla, chocolate, etc.’