What does it mean?592039

‘Ibidem’ means ‘in the same place.’ It is used in footnotes to show that information taken from the source cited is the same as the preceding one. It is commonly abbreviated to just ‘ibid.’


‘Ibidem’ is made up of two Latin words. ‘Ibi’ means ‘in that place’ and ‘idem’ means ‘the same.’ It is believed to have first been used in the English language in the late 17th century.

Improper Use

‘Ibid’ is not to be confused with its ‘cousin’ ‘op cit.’ It is only to be used when the preceding footnote cites the same source as the current. Rather than type out that lengthy, boring title, complete with date of publication and publisher, all over again, a simple ‘ibid’ will save you plenty of time.

Proper Use

‘Ibidem’ is usually abbreviated to simply ‘ibid.’ The full-stop is important to highlight the abbreviation. Examples of use are as follows:

“E.B. White – Charlotte’s Web, New York:Harper and Brothers, 1952, p.48
ibid, p.50″

“Vladimir Nabokov – Lolita, London:Penguin Classics, 2000, p.192
ibid, p.256″

i.e., ‘id est…’

What does it mean?Doubt

The term ‘id est’ may be unfamiliar to some when written this way. In fact, we see ‘id est’ written frequently as ‘i.e.’ It is usually used to indicate an explanation of something.


‘Id est’ comes from the Latin, meaning is ‘that is.’ The first use of it in spoken or written English is unknown.

Improper Use

‘I.e.’ is frequently confused with ‘e.g.’ This is incorrect; e.g. stands for ‘exempli gratia,’ which literally means ‘for example.’ ‘I.e.’ doesn’t provide an example, but a meaning. The two are frequently mixed up in written English as they are presumed by many to be synonymous.
Aside from this, it has become hard to determine what is proper and improper with ‘i.e.’ as there are a variety of ways in which it is used. In British English, for example, it is standard to place a comma afterwards, whereas American English goes without. It is rare to see the term used entirely incorrectly, as it’s such a common figure of the written and spoken word. It used to be deemed incorrect to put a colon after i.e. – ie: like this – but this is now widely accepted, as is italicising the term.

Proper Use

‘Id est’ is frequently, if not then always, abbreviated to ‘i.e.’ Examples of use in a sentence:

‘I use the browser IE, i.e. Internet Explorer.’ (I’ll get my coat…)
‘Bob’s pets, i.e. his cats, need a bath – they stink.’

They’ve gone ad infinitum….

What does it mean?


The meaning of ad infinitum is ‘to infinity’ or ‘forevermore.’ Ad infinitum and beyond! (Couldn’t resist that one…)


‘Infinitum’ in Latin literally means ‘to infinity.’ The translation from Latin is as is. An early written use of the term is in Jonathan Swift’s ‘On Poetry: A Rhapsody’ in the 17th century.

Improper Use

As ad infinitum is less commonly used in everyday speech, coming across improper use is rare. However, people may use it to express a long period of time. Pedantic though it may sound, this is incorrect; ad infinitum should only be used when referring to a literal forever. However, it sounds great when used sarcastically…

Proper Use

In its context, ad infinitum means ‘for eternity.’ It can also be abbreviated to ‘ad inf.’ Some examples:

‘The human race should continue ad infinitum.’
‘Space goes on ad infinitum.’