In Toto… I don’t think we’re in Kansas anymore

What does it mean?643040

The meaning of in toto is ‘totally’ or ‘as a whole.’ It is synonymous with ‘altogether.’

Etymology

In toto comes from the Latin term ‘totus,’ meaning total.  The term in toto translates literally to ‘in total’ or ‘in entirety.’ Sources conflict as to its first recorded use in English; some claim it was in the 1600s, whilst others state it came into use in the 18th century.

Improper Use

In toto is sometimes erroneously written as en toto. Although ‘en’ does mean ‘in,’ spelling it this way isn’t considered acceptable in modern use.

Proper Use

In toto is generally used in a legal context, and hasn’t yet really found its way into everyday conversation. It is occasionally used outside of the legal profession, mostly in academic works or newspaper articles. Examples of use in a sentence include:

                        ‘Bob’s case was dismissed in toto.’
                        ‘The flood destroyed everything in the basement in toto.’

Latin shouldn’t make you sic…

Note: There are many usages of ‘sic’ in the written word, some more obscure than others. This article focuses only on the most common usage.

What does it mean?719078

‘Sic’ literally means “thus.” It is used very frequently in articles, and most people come across it almost daily. It is most commonly used to indicate that a quotation from a person or source has been copied to the letter, ‘warts and all,’ complete with incorrect spelling or phrasing (if any.)

Etymology

Sic first appeared in English use in the late 19th century. It comes from the Latin sic erat scriptum, which means ‘that it was written.’

Improper Use

Sic is such a common term in everyday reading and writing that you rarely see it misused or used improperly. However, it can be, and often is, mistaken for an acronym, such as ‘said in copy.’ Where this incorrect use originated from is unclear. It can also sometimes mistakenly be treated as an abbreviation, i.e. written as [sic.] No full stop should follow the word.

Proper Use

‘Sic’ should be placed in brackets (as in (sic) or [sic]) or italicised (sic). It is usually placed after a direct quote in an article, usually where the ‘quotee’ has used slang or misspelt or mispronounced a word. It can also be used after foreign languages. For example:

‘In his email to The Daily Blah, Bob said that “the book is definately [sic] red.”’
‘When telling the story of catching a would-be instrument thief, singer Ima Vokelist tells us: “I said, ‘you stay away from them [sic] guitars!’”’